Thursday, May 31, 2012

Detroit's prospects may be better than we think

by Kaid Benfield

As almost everyone knows, Detroit is a city with some serious problems.  But, as I have written before, it's more complicated than some pundits allow:  while it is true that the central city has been famously "shrinking," its suburbs have actually been growing in recent decades.  Looking at Detroit the region rather than Detroit the central city, the situation is still far from rosy, but not as dramatically dire as some suggest.
Lower Woodward

I find it nothing short of tragic that so many people are writing off the city's prospects - and concentrating mainly on how to adapt to a decline of population and economic activity that they believe is essentially permanent - when the region has been expanding.  Hollowed-out centers accompanied by sprawl on the fringe are horrible for the environment and for people.  The last thing we should be doing is institutionalizing that pattern.



more about Detroit:

URBAN TRIP DISTRIBUTION MODELS: ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL RESIDUAL ERRORS AND SOME IMPLICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION POLICY AND RESEARCH

by Charles CHEUNG, John BLACK, and Paul VAN DEN BOS

Researchers have clearly demonstrated the weaknesses in the gravity model specification. Yet the model remains today at the heart of the four-step modeling (for example, TransCAD) used in practice in the urban transportation planning process. There is an array of suitable statistical measures to test model goodness-of-fit against survey origin-destination (O-D) data that allow calibrated model specifications to be evaluated and the best model selected; but the implications of inaccuracies in trip distribution models are avoided by practitioners. The aggregated gravity model, one stratified by industry and occupation, and an intervening opportunities model are calibrated on journey-to-work Census data for Sydney. O-D residuals are assigned to the transport network to check for spatial bias using the TransCAD software to pinpoint where investment decisions may have been based on either over- or under-estimation of traffic flows. The implications of these findings for transportation policy and infrastructure investment are articulated. The conclusions point towards a need for research and development into improved spatial interaction models.


more about urban travel behavior:

The Impact of Bicycling Facilities on Commute Mode Share

Incremental Integration of Land Use and Activity-Based Travel Modeling: Workplace Choices and Travel Demand

Documentary film: Sprawling from Grace: The Consequences of Suburbanization

The influence of urban physical form on trip generation, evidence from metropolitan Shiraz, Iran

Urban Travel Route and Activity Choice Survey (UTRACS): An Internet-Based Prompted Recall Activity Travel Survey using GPS Data

URBAN TRANSPORT AND LOCAL GOVERNANCE IN ASIAN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

New German community models car-free living

URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT: MONITORING, GIS, AND MODELING

by  KURT FEDRA

Urban environmental management must integrate the spatial, structural features of a city, typically captured in GIS, and the dynamics of environmental quality indicators that can be obtained by monitoring. To provide decision relevant information supporting planning and management, these components are integrated in models for scenario analysis and optimisation tasks.
The paper describes some results from an environmental Telematics project (ECOSIM) and two Esprit projects (HITERM, SIMTRAP), as well as a EUREKA EUROENVIRON project (AIDAIR), and applications in cities such as Vienna, Berlin, Geneva, Basel, Milano, Athens, Gdansk, and Izmir. Strategies for the integration of monitoring, GIS, and modeling are presented, that use a common client-server architecture, an object oriented design, embedded expert systems technology, and a multi-media user interface to support easy access, and easy use of complex analytical tools for urban environmental management.


more about GIS applications:

Developing a geo-spatial urban form - travel behaviour model for the city of Ahmedabad, India

URBAN TRANSFORMATION OF ASIANS’ TRADITIONAL CBD AREAS BY LEGAL REDEVELOPMENT PROJECTS: CASE STUDY OF SEOUL AND TOKYO

Accessibility effect on urban land values

Modeling street connectivity, pedestrian movement and land-use according to standard GIS street network representations: A Comparative Study

REMOTE SENSING IMAGE INTERPRETATION STUDY SERVING URBAN PLANNING BASED ON GIS

A GIS-based gradient analysis of urban landscape pattern of Shanghai metropolitan area, China

Land development, land use, and urban sprawl in Puerto Rico integrating remote sensing and population census data

Wednesday, May 30, 2012

Simulating land-use change in Portugal using an activitybased model

by Jasper van Vliet and Hedwig van Delden

This paper presents an activity based land-use model, where activities represent quantitative information, such as population or jobs. These activities are added to a constraint cellular automaton (CA) model, which is now constrained in terms of their activities instead of their land use. The CA transition rules distribute activities based on the neighbouring activity distribution, the land use distribution, a diseconomies of scale term, some location properties and a stochastic perturbation term. Land use is then allocated according to the new activity distribution. Hence land use and activities are mutually dependent and each cell has two values: a land use state and a vector of activities. The activity based model is tested to simulate population dynamics and land-use changes in Portugal. Simulation results show that the model can produce realistic land use dynamics. Moreover, we argue that the inclusion of activities closer resembles the process of real world land-use dynamics and offers opportunities for integrated modelling due to the availability of quantitative information.


more about land use planning:

Review of existing land/use transport models

Exploring the Historical Determinants of Urban Growth Patterns through Cellular Automata

Local level application of the dynamic land use model METRONAMICA: Assessment and modelling – a case study on the Dutch municipality Weert

SIMULATING URBAN AND REGIONAL EVOLUTIONS: SCENARIOS OF DEVELOPMENT IN THREE STUDY CASES: ALGARVE PROVINCE (PORTUGAL), DRESDEN-PRAGUE TRANSPORT CORRIDOR (GERMANY-CZECH REPUBLIC) AND FRIULI-VENEZIA GIULIA REGION (ITALY)

Exploring the Historical Determinants of Urban Growth Patterns through Cellular Automata

by Kiril Stanilov and Michael Batty

We have adapted METRONAMICA, an established cellular automata (CA) modelling system, to simulate the historical growth of a section of a large world city. Our model is tuned to reflect the morphology of land use patterns more accurately than traditional CA models, which abstract those patterns to more aggregate spatial scales. We explore the spatial determinants of land use patterns with detailed empirical data, documenting the historical growth of West London at an unusually high level of spatial and temporal resolution. The results of the study provide support for our considered speculations: (1) that the spatial relationships between land uses and the physical environment are remarkably consistent through time, showing little variation relative to changes in historical context; and (2) that these relationships constitute a basic code for urban growth which determines the spatial signature of land development in a given metropolitan area.


mroe about land use planning:

Municipal Finance and the Pattern of Urban Growth

Integrated land use and transportation interaction: a temporal GIS exploratory data analysis approach

IMROVING URBAN LAND USE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA: THE CASE OF AKURE

Review of Land Use Models: Theory and Application

Current and Future Land Use Models

Local level application of the dynamic land use model METRONAMICA: Assessment and modelling – a case study on the Dutch municipality Weert

by Sophia Christine Linke

Policy makers, who are faced with decision making about spatial activities in urban areas, can be guided by means of computer based decision support systems. An example of such support systems are land use models, offering important benefits and assistance. The land use model METRONAMICA is such a decision support system. Its allocation methodology is based on a cellular automaton. The model is interactive and user-friendly, facilitates learning and employs complex and weakly-structured decision contexts.
For the thesis at hand a study area in the Netherlands, the municipality Weert, was chosen. Here, several major changes and redevelopments are planned but different opinions considering future growth perspectives exist. METRONAMICA could be used for developing them. The question is, if the model provides accurate results and usable support when being applied at a high resolution and local level.
In the course of the study METRONAMICA’s possible application is tested and evaluated. First METRONAMICA is compared to a selection of other spatial models (CLUE, LandUseScanner, UrbanSim and SLEUTH). Keeping in mind the local scale of application, the availability of suitable data then is assessed, input datasets are created and suitable variables are chosen while carrying out the model calibration. For assessing the quality of calibration, two measurements are applied: Kappa statistics and Zipf’s law. Special attention is paid to the applied cell size (25 x 25 m) and the size of the neighbourhood the cellular automaton takes into consideration (8 cell and 16 cell radius neighbourhood). In order to evaluate METRONAMICA’s possibilities for local planning support, several development scenarios are created and simulated until the year 2040.
The results show, that a local application seems to be possible, but more detailed data should be inserted into the modelling environment to be able to model more detailed land use functions (e.g. splitting up the urban land uses). Then, also much more detailed transition rules could be implemented, accounting for dynamics within the urban environment. The simulation results obtained show a remarkable difference between the 8- and 16-cell neighbourhoods. The model was calibrated with an 8-cell neighbourhood, and then the neighbourhood extended to 16 cells, resulting in very blobby simulation result. The model should hence fully be calibrated again. Changing the neighbourhood while expecting to achieve better simulation results, seems only possible when adapting also the transition rules.


more about land use models:

SIMULATING URBAN AND REGIONAL EVOLUTIONS: SCENARIOS OF DEVELOPMENT IN THREE STUDY CASES: ALGARVE PROVINCE (PORTUGAL), DRESDEN-PRAGUE TRANSPORT CORRIDOR (GERMANY-CZECH REPUBLIC) AND FRIULI-VENEZIA GIULIA REGION (ITALY)

Land use change modelling in an urban region with simultaneous population growth and shrinkage including planning and governance feedbacks

Incremental Integration of Land Use and Activity-Based Travel Modeling: Workplace Choices and Travel Demand

Review of existing land/use transport models

A model of residential location choice with endogenous housing prices and traffic for the Paris region

A STRUCTURAL EQUATIONS MODEL OF LAND USE PATTERNS, LOCATION CHOICE, AND TRAVEL BEHAVIOR IN SEATTLE AND COMPARISON WITH LISBON

Tuesday, May 29, 2012

SIMULATING URBAN AND REGIONAL EVOLUTIONS: SCENARIOS OF DEVELOPMENT IN THREE STUDY CASES: ALGARVE PROVINCE (PORTUGAL), DRESDEN-PRAGUE TRANSPORT CORRIDOR (GERMANY-CZECH REPUBLIC) AND FRIULI-VENEZIA GIULIA REGION (ITALY)

by Laura Petrov, Carlo Lavalle, Valentina Sagris, Marjo Kasanko, and Niall McCormick

Among other causes the analysis of urban areas and their development has particular relevance because of their growing exposure to natural hazards, particularly floods and forest fires. Inappropriate regional and urban planning can exacerbate the negative effects of natural hazards. On the other hand good land management and planning practices, including appropriate land use and development control in natural hazard-prone areas, represent suitable non-structural solutions to minimise exposure and damage. This paper aims to provide a coherent basis for the spatial planning and management of landscapes in Europe.
The MOLAND urban and regional growth model (Barredo et al., 2004; White et al., 1999) is used to evaluate spatial planning for sustainable urban development and measures for natural risks reduction. A number of indicators set measuring various aspects of urban land use and population density can also be analysed. In this article we describe the application of the MOLAND model in three study cases presenting each a specific development condition: the Algarve Province in Portugal, the Dresden–Prague transport corridor in Germany and in the Czech Republic and the Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region (FVG) in Italy.
In modern Portuguese history, after the revolution in 1974, a “democratisation of tourism” occurred and profoundly changed of land use pattern throughout the country. On the other hand, in the last years, Portugal suffered an increased number of large forest fires. The Algarve Province was especially affected. The objectives of the work in Algarve are to monitor sustainable development trends, assess the impact of tourism and evaluate the problems cased by forest fires. The dynamic of land use scenarios are examined as a way to turn intuitive knowledge of a problematic situation into clear research questions that may be explored by analysing and forecasting. The future scenarios produced by the model are tailored to particular requirements such as the assessment of tourism and measures to improve regional needs.
The Dresden-Prague corridor is a very interesting European region because of its historical, present and future development. Many historical and political events and geographical circumstances have moulded the landscape. Recently, during the 2002 flood events have affected the territory destroying villages and inundating cities of Dresden and Prague, in both of which large parts of the old town were under water. How could the land be used in such a way to reduce the floods damages?
The Friuli–Venezia Giulia Region is located in the North-Eastern area of Italy. Because of its geographical positioning and configuration, the region presents a number of peculiarities which have characterized its land use dynamics. FVG has transformed from being a rural area into a dynamic urban region and vast changes have occurred in demographic terms and population movements being related to the Italian economic boom.The region has also suffered the impacts of severe natural hazards, the two major events were the heavy floods of 1966 and 2002 in Pordenone, showing how vulnerable this area is. Early results of this study show that the main driving force of natural disasters damage is not only increasing floods hazard due to climate change, but increasing vulnerability, mainly due to urbanisation in flood prone areas (CEC, 2004; UN, 2004).
The MOLAND model contributes to understand the landscape changes and drivers of the dynamics in the development conditions of each study area. It will help to answer where and at which intensity land-take for urbanization occurs and how spatial growth patters alter over time; how urbanization (e.g. sprawl) affects large areas overruling local and regional decisions and also calamities such as forest fires and floods; how climate change will affect us and the future generations and what can we do? How the people to interfere with natural processes, climate change, the continue changes of land uses and floods/forest fires phenomena?
Urban and regional simulations offer a useful approach to understanding the consequences of current spatial planning policies. The scenarios are considered to generate data of meaningful representations of the region’s characteristics whilst still allowing the model to process data in real-time in response to the wide variety of possible policy decisions specified by the user. The new tool will permit in supporting European policies of sustainable development and derive current strategies regarding the adaptation to the extreme events.


more about modeling land use:

Land use change modelling in an urban region with simultaneous population growth and shrinkage including planning and governance feedbacks

Incremental Integration of Land Use and Activity-Based Travel Modeling: Workplace Choices and Travel Demand

Integrated Land Use and Transportation Planning and Modelling: Addressing Challenges in Research and Practice

Review of existing land/use transport models

A model of residential location choice with endogenous housing prices and traffic for the Paris region

A STRUCTURAL EQUATIONS MODEL OF LAND USE PATTERNS, LOCATION CHOICE, AND TRAVEL BEHAVIOR IN SEATTLE AND COMPARISON WITH LISBON

MODELLING TRANSPORT: A Synthesis of Transport Modelling Methodologies

Land use change modelling in an urban region with simultaneous population growth and shrinkage including planning and governance feedbacks

by Dagmar Haase

In the EU-project PLUREL we develop scenarios for future land use development in European urban regions facing population growth or shrinkage. We combine the spatially explicit modelling work with a participatory approach to involve stakeholder knowledge on drivers and policy instruments to steer land use development. Our scenario technique aims at incorporating feedbacks from planning into land use modelling. For modelling land use futures and options of the urban region of Leipzig-Halle, Germany, the MOLAND cellular automata model was used. To integrate stakeholder knowledge into the functionality of MOLAND and, so doing, to develop locally adapted land use storylines was the major purpose of a respective 1-day scenario workshop with local experts and practitioners. First, MOLAND model results stimulated the discussion about both impacts and steering options of future land development. Second, three predefined storylines were transferred into maps in a planning game. Participants created future land use patterns, assessed their drivers and impacts and reflected the instruments they would use to steer such a land use development. The resulting maps and the new knowledge about steering instruments were again used to improve the MOLAND model setup for Leipzig-Halle. So doing, we can feed stakeholders’ expert knowledge into the modelling work. Overall, quite positive experiences concerning the potentials of such a transdiciplinary approach have been made.


more about modeling:

Incremental Integration of Land Use and Activity-Based Travel Modeling: Workplace Choices and Travel Demand

Modelling Perceived Accessibility to Urban Amenities Using Fuzzy Logic, Transportation GIS and Origin-Destination Surveys

Reduction of CO2 emissions of transport by reorganisation of urban activities

A STRUCTURAL EQUATIONS MODEL OF LAND USE PATTERNS, LOCATION CHOICE, AND TRAVEL BEHAVIOR IN SEATTLE AND COMPARISON WITH LISBON

Modeling the environmental impacts of urban land use and land cover change—a study in Merseyside, UK

The Impact of Bicycling Facilities on Commute Mode Share

by Frank Douma and Fay Cleaveland

A 2005 study by Barnes, Thompson, and Krizek examined how the addition of bicycling facilities during the 1990s influenced localized bicycle commuting rates in the Twin Cities. They found that new facilities had a small but consistent and statistically significant impact on increased rates of bicycle commuting in areas immediately surrounding these facilities. This study expands on these findings by applying the same methodology to six other cities that experienced new facility construction during the 1990s: Austin, TX, Chicago, IL, Colorado Springs, CO, Salt Lake City, UT, Madison WI, and Orlando, FL. The purpose is to determine whether results from the Twin Cities are consistent elsewhere and to identify possible contextual factors influencing facilities’ impact on bicycle commuting rates in a given city. 
We conclude that the “build it and they will come” theory is not universally applicable; context factors are an important element in determining the effectiveness of new commuting facilities. Specifically, we identify three key themes that were present in cities whose bicycling commute mode share increased around new bicycling facilities. The first theme is location of facilities along usable commuting routes, best illustrated by the city of Chicago. Bicycling facilities lead from distant parts of the city and converge in the downtown employment hub. In Austin, facilities are also oriented toward the central city and connect the city’s densely-settled residential neighborhoods with this location. In contrast, the new bicycling facilities in Orlando do not converge on any central location. A message that can be drawn from this comparison is that bicycling facilities are most effective in highly-accessible urban areas where a large number of commute trips can take place across short distances. In locations where bicycling facilities could provide viable commuting routes between residential and employment concentrations, increases in bicycle commuting rates were likely to occur.
The second key theme is overall network connectivity. In both Austin and Madison, the network of bicycling facilities covers a large part of the central city. Numerous intersections among these trails allow a bicyclist to easily navigate from one section of the city to another. The connectivity of Austin’s facility network contrasts with the single trail constructed during the 1990s in Colorado Springs. In Austin, a potential bike commuter could reside in a variety of locations and still ride to an employment location in most parts of the central city. In Colorado Springs, a bicycle commuter would have to both live and work along the length of the Pikes Peak Greenway Trail for this to be a viable new commuting option.
The final key theme is the amount of publicity and promotion dedicated to new bicycling facilities. The contrast between the change in commute rates in Chicago and Salt Lake City best illustrates this idea. In Chicago, new bicycling facilities were added in combination with a multitude of other efforts by city planners and advocates to advertise their presence and promote bicycle commuting among city residents. This combination of efforts was simply not present in a similar magnitude in Salt Lake City during the 1990s. A bicycling facility can only be adopted by commuters if they are aware of its existence and excited to adopt bicycles as their commute mode.
Green shared lane
Cycling in Salt Lake City

Our findings raise several questions for further study. One of the most obvious questions is how bicycle commute mode will change around facilities constructed between 2000 and 2010. Many of the bicycling coordinators we interviewed felt that the popularity of bicycling in their communities reached new levels after the year 2000, and pointed out numerous network expansions since that time. Increasing the study’s time span would help uncover trends in commuting rather than snapshots at two particular points in time.
Secondly, although this study did not find off-street facilities to be more beneficial to commuters than on-street trails, these facilities have value as non-work travel routes, recreation destinations, and public amenities. A survey of users’ travel purposes is underway in Minnesota; these findings will enhance our understanding of off-street facilities and provide important groundwork for future studies on the subject of travel behavior and the usefulness of bicycling for non-work travel trips.
Lastly, this study identifies several qualitative factors that contribute to the success of city bicycle facilities. A methodology that quantitatively identifies and measures qualitative indicators could provide useful insight and guidance as to how city policy-makers could best address bicycle commuting in their city.


more about bicycle planning:

Bicycle policies of the European principals: continuous and integral

The M√ľnster Application for the European Green Capital Award

Bicycle Use and Safety In Paris, Boston, and Amsterdam

BEST PRACTICE IN FACILITATING AND PROMOTING ACTIVE TRAVEL

Paris to Allow Cyclists to Run Red Lights

The World's 7 Most Bike-friendly Cities

A Review and Critique of NJ TRANSIT, Bicycle Access Policies

A Review and Critique of NJ TRANSIT, Bicycle Access Policies

by Andrew J. Besold

The New Jersey Transit Corporation’s (NJ TRANSIT) bicycle access program and its policies are consistent with the average North American industry practices and provide an acceptable amount of bicycle accessibility. Commuter trains along with the Hudson-Bergen and Newark Light Rail trains in northern New Jersey provide bicycle access to trains outside of peak, rush-hour periods and holidays. The River LINE and Atlantic City Line have no rush-hour or holidays access restrictions. All rail services reserve the right to limit bicycle access when trains are crowded and bicycles have to potential to interfere with passenger access. Unlike the Southern Service Region, bus service in the Northern Service Region currently lacks the ability to transport bicycles on urban buses. This will be remedied with the purchase of new buses with bicycle racks in the coming years. Bus routes in all service regions utilizing coach style buses have the capacity to transport bicycles in the underfloor luggage compartment. On-board, bicycle specific facilities are lacking on all commuter rail services as well as on the Hudson-Bergen and Newark Light Rail systems. Only the River LINE Light Rail service provides bicycle specific equipment to secure bicycles while on board the train.
NJ TRANSIT has bicycle parking capacity for roughly 2,300 bicycles. It also has capacity for approximately 375 bicycles in special bicycle lockers that are rented out on a monthly basis. While bicycle parking is provided at 90% of rail stations, 80% of light rail stations and at an undisclosed number of bus terminals, in most of these locations only the most basic, unsheltered bicycle racks are offered. While many of these racks are of the high quality inverted “U” style, unsheltered bicycle racks with no other security measures are an inappropriate solution when bicycles are expected to be parked for a period of greater than two hours. The lack of higher quality, more secure and sheltered bicycle parking facilities at stations may discourage many transit riders from using their bicycles to access NJ TRANSIT. The bicycle parking preferences of NJ TRANSIT passengers, particularly of those already accessing NJ TRANSIT by bicycle should be investigated. NJ TRANSIT should reevaluate its bicycle parking inventory and upgrade most bicycle parking to a sheltered option and investigate providing more high security options like, bicycle lockers, bike cages and bike stations at stations with appropriate demand and security concerns. All new station projects, renovations and upgrades should accommodate bicycle parking with at least the level of service provided by sheltered bicycle racks, with lower level of service bicycle parking only providing a spillover function.
Waiting in Westmont
NJ TRANSIT should investigate installing vertical hanging bicycle racks on all its commuter and light rail rolling stock that presently do not have them. The success of bicycle integration on-board the River LINE Light Rail may be due to the lack of time restrictions in which passengers can bring a bicycle aboard. However it is likely that this success is also due to the convenient and space efficient, vertical bicycle racks on-board all River Line trains that displace a minimal amount of passenger seats. Similar vertical bicycle racks on other NJ TRANSIT rail rolling stock would make better use of limited space, allow for greater passenger capacity while still accommodating bicycles and possibly minimize liability concerns and conflicts between passengers when bicycles are brought on board. Further detailed investigation into how on-board facilities can help accommodate bicycles more efficiently while also minimizing passenger conflicts should be conducted.
NJ TRANSIT does not proactively market to bicyclists who may want to use NJ TRANSIT to access weekend and recreational destinations. Most notable, is the very large and captive “car-free” populace of New York City. NJ TRANSIT should investigate offering special packages to entice bicyclists to use NJ TRANSIT’s services to reach their destinations. To help accommodate this, NJ TRANSIT should also investigate the conversion of some of its older passenger cars (that are scheduled to be removed from service) to transport large numbers of bicycles on peak weekends and holidays, particularly during the warmer months of the year.


more about biking:

Walking and cycling for sustainable mobility in Singapore

Towards a Sustainable Transportation Environment: The Case of “Pedicabs” and Cycling in the Philippines

sustainable transport

World’s largest bike-share system in China dwarfs popular U.S. program

The Case for Bike-Share

Cycle Tracks and the Evolving American Streetscape

Raising Public Awareness about Sustainable Urban Transport

Monday, May 28, 2012

Incremental Integration of Land Use and Activity-Based Travel Modeling: Workplace Choices and Travel Demand

by Liming Wang, Paul Waddell, and Maren L. Outwater

Recent advances in activity-based travel modeling and integrated land use and transportation modeling have significantly advanced the understanding of and the capacity to model location choices and travel behavior more realistically. These advances, however, come with greater data requirements, and the risk and the substantial cost involved with adoption of these models have slowed their move to operational use. The purpose of this research was twofold. First, the study addressed one aspect of an incremental approach that more carefully balanced the risks and benefits of moving operational models in new directions: replacement of the choice model of home-based work destination in the four-step travel model system with a pair of choice models at the level of the individual worker. The new choice models were implemented as long-term choices in the linked land use model system. Second, the models were used to provide a way to derive matches between workers and their workplace with commonly available data. These matches complemented synthetic populations and provided a key input for activity-based travel models. The models predicted whether a worker would choose to work at home on a long-term basis; if he or she did not, an out-of-home job was chosen. These models linked an individual worker to a specific job at a workplace and therefore directly predicted commuting patterns. The paper presents the model specifications, estimation results, and results of validation of the models against observed commuting data from the Census Transportation Planning Package. The model reproduced observed commuting flows well, and computational performance was fast, even though the model operated at the level of the individual worker and job.


more about lans use and transportation modeling:

Developing a geo-spatial urban form - travel behaviour model for the city of Ahmedabad, India

Modelling Perceived Accessibility to Urban Amenities Using Fuzzy Logic, Transportation GIS and Origin-Destination Surveys

Reduction of CO2 emissions of transport by reorganisation of urban activities

A STRUCTURAL EQUATIONS MODEL OF LAND USE PATTERNS, LOCATION CHOICE, AND TRAVEL BEHAVIOR IN SEATTLE AND COMPARISON WITH LISBON

The Saga of Integrated Land Use-Transport Modeling: How Many More Dreams Before We Wake Up?

Skyline photos of Frankfurt (Oder), Germany






more skyline photos:

Skyline photos of Melbourne, Australia (1)

Skyline photos of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (2)

Skyline photos of Mexico City (1)

Skyline photos of Philadelphia (2)

Skyline photos of Miami, Florida (1)

Skyline photos of Portland, Oregon 1

Skyline photos of Marseille, France

Skyline photos of Hamburg, Germany 1