Wednesday, December 7, 2016

Urban Transformations of the Mediterranean Cities in Light of Developments in the Modern Era

By Bakr Hashem Paumey Ahmed Alashwal

The urban transformation processes in its framework and its general significance became a fundamental and vital subject of consideration for both the developed and the developing societies. It has become important to regulate the architectural systems adopted by the city, to sustain the present development on one hand, and on the other hand, to facilitate its future growth.
Thus, the study dealt with the phenomenon of urban transformation of the Mediterranean cities, and the city of Alexandria in particular, because of its significant historical and cultural legacy, its historical architecture and its contemporary urbanization.
This article investigates the entirety of cities in the Mediterranean region through the analysis of the relationship between inflation and growth of these cities and the extent of the complexity of the city barriers. We hope to analyze not only the internal transformations, but the external relationships (both imperial and post-colonial) that have shaped Alexandria city growth from the nineteenth century until today.

20111111_Egypt_0201 Alexandria 

More about urban cities of the Middle East:

Upgrading informal settlements in Egypt towards a sustainable urban development

The Status of Urban and Suburban Sprawl in Egypt and Iran

A REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN POPULATION AND TRANSPORT ENERGY CONSUMPTION

Urban Sprawl Pattern Recognition Using Remote Sensing and GIS – Case Study Shiraz City, Iran

URBAN SPRAWL IN MID-SIZED CITIES OF MENA, EVIDENCE FROM YAZD AND KASHAN IN CENTRAL IRAN

A THEORETICAL APPROACH TO CAPABILITIES OF THE TRADITIONAL URBAN FORM IN PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION

TENSIONS AND TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE MASTER PLANNING PROCESS OF ISTANBUL

 By James STEELE and Rania SHAFIK,

Istanbul has been described as a city on the edge, of Europe, of modernization, of fundamentalism, of the future. But it would be more accurate to describe it as a city in between: split between Europe and Asia, modernization and tradition, poverty and wealth, an industrial and post-industrial ethos and financial system, secularism and spirituality, past, present and future. It also spans one of the largest and most active tectonic plates on earth, between the Eurasian and Anatolian plates. This interstitial condition is most legible in the physical layers of city growth, clearly documented, in the modern period, in an incremental series of urban plans that convey the social, cultural and religious values of its inhabitants. Istanbul has a unique Eurasian character due its location on two continents; the western side of Istanbul is in Europe, while the eastern side is in Asia. However, there are lots of arguments regarding the western influence in architecture, the consumption based projects around the city and the increase of gated communities in the European side, which have been invading the socio economic and the ethnic character in the city fabric. Today, Istanbul faces many challenges in its development process where global and regional influences compete with the needs and demands of diverse local groups (IMM, 2009).


To return to old

More about Istanbul:

Modeling street connectivity, pedestrian movement and land-use according to standard GIS street network representations: A Comparative Study

TRADITIONAL SHOPPING: A Syntactic Comparison of Commercial Spaces in Iran and Turkey

De-spatialized Space as Neoliberal Utopia: Gentrified İstiklal Street and Commercialized Urban Spaces

Globalisation, Cleaner Energy and Mega-Cities: Options and Messages for Turkey/Istanbul

THE EFFECTS OF PROPOSED BRIDGES ON URBAN MACROFORM OF ISTANBUL: a syntactic evaluation

Implications of an Urban Renewal Based State-Led Gentrification Process in a Roma Neighborhood in Istanbul

Tuesday, December 6, 2016

Policies for Sustainable Accessibility and Mobility in Urban Areas of Africa

By SSATP-Africa Transport Policy Program

Addressed to policy- and decision-makers, this paper proposes a set of policies which aim to improve accessibility and mobility in urban areas of Africa.
Large and small, urban areas of Africa are currently experiencing the fastest population growth in the history of the planet. As a result, policy- and decision-makers face enormous challenges in meeting the needs of current and future urban
dwellers.

Drawing from specific data collection and analysis for selected cities in Africa, as well as from insights gained through consultations with stakeholders and through an extensive literature review, this paper:

- Gives the reader an overview of the main accessibility and mobility issues faced by African urban areas, namely stemming from benchmark analysis among representative urban areas selected across the continent;
- Provides the reader with an overview of the lessons stemming from international experience over the past twenty years; and
- Proposes a conceptual framework and a set of policy recommendations meant to improve accessibility and mobility conditions in urban areas of Africa.
As a first step, the diagnosis is structured around ten specific and interrelated key issues that bear on accessibility and mobility in urban Africa, namely:
- four key issues related to urban transport governance: organization, human resources, financing, and land use.
- three key issues related to the urban transport system itself: public space, transport services, and transport infrastructure.
- three key issues related to the main impacts and externalities of urban transport: road safety, environmental quality and resources, and travel cost and time for users (i.a. affordability and inclusiveness).

Read more

Bike rack 

more about urban transportation:

Toward an understanding of children’s perceptions of their transport geographies: (non)active school travel and visual representations of the built environment

Smart Growth and Transit- Oriented Development at the State Level: Lessons from California, New Jersey, and Western Australia

Bicycling as a Way of Life: A Comparative Case Study of Bicycle Culture in Portland, OR and Amsterdam

TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE URBAN TRANSPORT SYSTEM: PLANNING FOR NON-MOTORIZED VEHICLES IN CITIES

An Analysis of Car Ownership in Latin American Cities: a Perspective for Future Research

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGES IN CAR OWNERSHIP PATTERNS

Friday, December 2, 2016

URBAN PLANNING: CHALLENGES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

By Mila Freire,

The advent of 2007 marks the year when, for the first time in the history of humanity, half the world’s population will be living in cities. Urban populations are expected to increase by 1.5 billion over the next 20 years, while the number of megacities will double. By 2015 the UN predicts that there will be 358 "million cities" with one million or more people and 27 "mega-cities" with ten million or more. Much of this growth will happen in developing countries.
The scale and pace of urbanization is opening up unforeseen possibilities. Large concentrations of people and goods provide increased opportunities for creativity, larger labor markets, and higher levels of productivity, not to speak of the cultural and political opportunities associated with urban life. Urban explosion also poses daunting challenges. It can result in unemployment and insufficient investment in basic services with the resulting environmental and social problems. 
This paper discusses some of the challenges associated with urbanization in developing countries. It uses examples from industrialized countries to extract useful insights. We begin by discussing how globalization impacts city management and continue with five specific aspects of urban growth: Metropolitan management, urban growth and environmental impact, urban development in disaster-prone sites, Property rights vs. public appropriation, and urban development added value and institutional strengthening. We conclude by summarizing the future challenges of urban planning/management in developing countries.


Urbanization in Asia

More about urban policy in emerging countries:

Urban Sprawl: A view from developing and developed Countries

Upgrading informal settlements in Egypt towards a sustainable urban development

Facilitating Urban Management Through Local SDI Case Study: The Municipality of Tehran 

Sustainable Urban Development and the Chinese Eco-City: Concepts, Strategies, Policies and Assessments

Cairo’s Informal Areas Between Urban Challenges and Hidden Potentials

Wednesday, November 30, 2016

Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies

By UN

Indicators perform many functions. They can lead to better decisions and more effective actions by simplifying, clarifying and making aggregated information available to policy makers. They can help incorporate physical and social science knowledge into decision-making, and they can help measure and calibrate progress toward sustainable development goals. They can provide an early warning to prevent economic, social and environmental setbacks. They are also useful tools to communicate ideas, thoughts and values.
The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 recognized the important role that indicators could play in helping countries make informed decisions concerning sustainable development. At the international level, the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) approved its Work Programme on Indicators of Sustainable Development in 1995. The first two sets of CSD Indicators of Sustainable Development (henceforth CSD indicators) were developed between 1994 and 2001. They have been extensively tested, applied and used in many countries as the basis for the development of national indicators of sustainable development.
The new revised edition of the CSD indicators has been developed in response to decisions by the CSD and the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002, which encouraged further work on indicators at the country level in line with national conditions and priorities and invited the international community to support efforts of developing countries in this regard. Since the publication of the previous set, knowledge of and experience with sustainable development indicators of countries and organizations has increased significantly, as has the emphasis on measuring progress on achieving sustainable development, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), at the national and the international levels. By incorporating these developments, the revision of the CSD indicators gives vital support to countries in their efforts to develop and implement national indicators for sustainable development.
This publication presents the revised, third edition of the CSD indicators. It also provides a synopsis of their foundation. The presentation of the indicator
set explicitly addresses their relation to Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, the outcomes of the major international conferences on sustainable development in 1992 and 2002, as well as their relation to the MDG Indicators. The publication also provides guidance on applying and adapting the CSD indicators for the development of national indicator sets. The role of indicator frameworks is briefly discussed, and a succinct description of all indicators is included. Detailed methodology sheets for each indicator are included in an accompanying CD-ROM. These methodology sheets are also available on the indicators section of the webpage of the United Nations Division for Sustainable Development (http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/) and will be regularly updated.


#18 Fish Fallacy

more about sustainability:

A Review of Urban Sustainability Assessment Methodologies

Transportation and Sustainability Best Practices Background

Towards a Sustainable Urban Form in Chiang Mai

Tackling eco-urbanity: Housing and placemaking at the urban edge

MESSAGE FROM TRADITIONAL SETTLEMENTS FOR FUTURE CITIES

Tuesday, November 29, 2016

A Review of Urban Sustainability Assessment Methodologies

By Emmanuel Adinyira, Samuel Oteng-Seifah, and Theophilus Adjei-Kumi

Sustainability has emerged as a planning concept from its beginnings in economics and ecological thinking and has widely been applied to urban development. Urban sustainability is simply described as a desirable state or set of urban conditions that persists overtime. Just as the task of defining sustainability has progressed in response to early economic thinking, so has the task of its assessment. Many urban sustainability assessment methods can be identified from literature. However an examination of these methods reveals largely three methodological foundations. Focusing on the context of urban development, this paper presents an appraisal of the relative potentials and limitations of methods developed around the three identified methodological foundations. The paper agrees with the much held view that, most currently available urban sustainability assessment methods fail to demonstrate sufficient understanding of the interrelations and interdependencies of social, economic and environmental considerations. It further points to a wide gap between assessment theories and practices. To help narrow this rather wide gap, the paper recommends a pragmatic shift in focus, from theory development to application and auditing. A suggestion is made for the application of key assessment methods in a given urban area and across various issues, spatial and time scales so as to allow for method comparison. It is hoped that the parallel application of existing methods will greatly accelerate the urban sustainability assessment learning process and will help in the improvement of both theory and practice.


Ciclovia, Bogota, Colombia

More about sustainable cities:

Introduction to Achieve Sustainable Neighborhoods

Climate change and urban transportation systems

Evaluating Urban Sustainability Using Land-Use Transport Interaction Models

Assessment of development and regeneration urban projects: cultural and operational implications in metropolization context 

Measuring Socially Sustainable Urban Regeneration in Europe 

Towards a Sustainable Urban Form in Chiang Mai

Sustainable human settlements development in Latin America and the Caribbean

Thursday, October 20, 2016

Urban Sprawl: A view from developing and developed Countries

By Ebenezer Adaku,

Though urban sprawl is often discussed without a specific definition, the term generally, connotes development patterns that are undesirable. In developed countries, this phenomenon of urban sprawl has a significant attention with regard to how it is described as well as its impacts. However, the nature of this phenomenon in developing countries still requires attention and traction in literature. Therefore, this study sought to highlight some of the characteristics of urban sprawl from the perspective of a developing country by juxtaposing the Ghanaian and the U.S. versions of urban sprawl as way of also stimulating further discussions in this direction. The study found out that though there are similarities in the causes and impacts of urban sprawl in both Ghana and the U.S., the socio-economic conditions as well as cultural systems in both countries play significant roles in the evolution and perception of the phenomenon in both countries.

Accra, Ghana Tiltshift

More about urban and suburban sprawl:

The Status of Urban and Suburban Sprawl in Egypt and Iran

Evaluation of Urban Sprawl Speed and Intensity Based on International Urbanization. Example from a Mexican City

Applying a CA-based model to explore land-use policy scenarios to contain sprawl in Thessaloniki, Greece

Monitoring and modeling the urban growth of mid-size cities in Iran by Markov model: the case study of Zanjan City

A scale-adjusted measure of ‘‘Urban sprawl’’ using nighttime satellite imagery

URBAN PATTERNS FOR A GREEN ECONOMY: LEVERAGING DENSITY

Friday, October 7, 2016

Upgrading informal settlements in Egypt towards a sustainable urban development

By Prof. Khaled Dewidar, Dr Ayman Hassan, Inji Kenawy, Nourhan Magdy

Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It is about ensuring a better quality of life for everyone,  now and for generations to come. This requires meeting four key objectives that are the social progress which recognize the need of everyone; the effective protection of the environment; the prudent use of the natural resources and the maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employments. Informal settlements are areas where groups of housing units have been constructed on land that the occupants have no legal claim to, or occupy illegally; an unplanned settlements and areas where housing is not in compliance with current planning and building regulations (unauthorized housing). In developing countries, cities are experiencing a real demographic explosion. This paper will deal with the problem of the informal settlement phenomenon in Egypt and the means of its upgrading by adopting the concept of sustainable urban development. It applies SWOT-AHP method to analyze stakeholders’ perception of quality of life and their relationship to sustainable development. Results revealed significant agreement between stakeholers’ groups of perception of strengths, threats and opportunities.


Backstreets of Islamic Cairo

More articles about Egypt: 

The Status of Urban and Suburban Sprawl in Egypt and Iran

Cairo’s Informal Areas Between Urban Challenges and Hidden Potentials

Revolutionary graffitis in the streets of Cairo, Egypt

Urbanization and Natural Disasters in the Mediterranean Population Growth and Climate Change in the 21st Century Case Studies on Izmit, Algiers and Alexandria

Friday, July 29, 2016

Planning and Partnerships for the Renewal of Urban Neighborhoods

By Stephen A. Sterrett,

Urban universities are a key resource for municipal government, businesses, community organizations, and citizens to foster partnerships for successful renewal of distressed urban neighborhoods. From its experience over the past decade, the Ohio State University has created a successful model for engagement with its neighborhoods and the City of Columbus. This model is grounded in market-based revitalization and includes community-based planning, a shared vision for renewal, multiple sources of funding, and a focus on long-term results. In turn, this engagement has invigorated the university’s mission as a land-grant institution in the twenty-first century.



Ready for tonight @ Colombus, OH


More about regeneration and revitalization plans:

Measuring Socially Sustainable Urban Regeneration in Europe 

Measuring neighborhood distress: a tool for place-based urban revitalization strategies

Culture and Urban Revitalization: A Harvest Document

Detroit’s Renewal from a Funder’s Perspective

Manhattan’s Master Plan: Why NYC Looks the Way it Does

Hopeful Footsteps in Mexico City’s Centro Histórico

Thursday, July 21, 2016

Introduction to Achieve Sustainable Neighborhoods

By Abolfazl Dehghanmongabadi, Şebnem Önal Hoşkara, and Nina Shirkhanloo

As results of the rapid development of cities and urban settlements during the nineteenth century as well as changes in conditions and aspects that are affective on development of cities in recent years, urban neighborhoods find especial position in the formation of cities. Besides, concept of sustainable development emerged as a major part of literature review in urban design and planning. There are numerous reasons to apply sustainability concept in urban design and planning that generally can be mentioned as preserving of natural systems and resources, economic prosperity and social equitable communities. In this regards, human must manage their own societies and products particularly settlements. Hence, applying aspects of sustainable development within conventional practice of neighborhood planning is a vital approach to achieving sustainable cities throughout the world. Accordingly, the main aim of this study is concentrated to make clear definition of sustainable neighborhood and clarifying the main factors and principles which are affective to achieve a sustainable neighborhood. The methodology of the research is centered on theoretical technique based on previews studies and documents. Consequently, the research would express main characteristics of a sustainable neighborhood and understanding the fundamental factors and approaches to enhance the level of sustainability concept in urban neighborhoods through increasing the quality of life and achieving sustainable development within cities. 


Looking at the City from above (Explore 2014-03-05) Ohne Titel Twilight

Pictures of Västra Hamnen, Malmö, Sweden explained in the article.



More about urban development and sustainable city:

Climate change and urban transportation systems

Evaluating Urban Sustainability Using Land-Use Transport Interaction Models

Assessment of development and regeneration urban projects: cultural and operational implications in metropolization context 

Measuring Socially Sustainable Urban Regeneration in Europe 

Green Alley Programs: Planning for a sustainable urban infrastructure?

Sustainable Urban Development and the Chinese Eco-City: Concepts, Strategies, Policies and Assessments

Friday, July 8, 2016

Toward an understanding of children’s perceptions of their transport geographies: (non)active school travel and visual representations of the built environment

By Caroline Fusco, Fiona Moola, Guy Faulkner, Ron Buliung, Vanessa Richichi

Environmental measures that are designed to facilitate changes in opportunities for active school transport (AST) do not often account for individuals’ interpretations of the built environment (BE) in different urban contexts. The Built Environment and Active School Transport (BEAT) project was undertaken to explore the ways in which the transport-BE interface gives rise to the use of active or non-active travel modes as the primary travel mode for school trips. We wanted to know how children experienced and understood the transport-built environment relationship. We selected four Toronto elementary school sites in areas that differed with respect to socio-economic status and built environment. We conducted photovoice interviews with 41 children, 21 who walked to/from school, and 20 who were driven. Adopting a thematic analytic approach, this paper examines the similarities and differences in the visual narratives of children’s transport geographies and discusses some of the benefits of using photovoice with children in a study of the transport-built environment relationship.

2014 Walk to School Day



more about sustainable urban transportation:

Friday, July 1, 2016

Smart Growth and Transit- Oriented Development at the State Level: Lessons from California, New Jersey, and Western Australia

By John L. Renne

The states of California, New Jersey, and Western Australia encourage smart growth through the employment of transit-oriented development (TOD). This article documents each state’s approach and highlights the importance of interagency cooperation at the state-level and intergovernmental cooperation between state and local governments. This article discusses the importance of state government participation in the planning and creation of policy to facilitate TOD and recommends elements for a model state TOD program.


20140830 04 Fullerton, California

More about Transit-Oriented Development:

Employment decentralization and and Transit-Oriented Development

Seattle's first TOD

A Seattle development that is greener than green

‘Creating nature’ with an urban village in Seattle

Evaluating integration between public transportation and pedestrian-oriented urban spaces in two main metro stations of Tehran

Thursday, June 30, 2016

The Status of Urban and Suburban Sprawl in Egypt and Iran

By Amr Ah. Gouda, Maryamsadat Hosseini, and Houshmand E. Masoumi

The circumstances of urban sprawl in the Middle Eastern cities have been basically examined; now we are aware of the existence of a crawling sprawl in the growth pattern of the region’s cities. Nevertheless, the extent and the causes of this phenomenon have not yet been clearly explained. Thus, two questions are still unanswered: (1) to what extent are the Middle Eastern cities sprawled?, (2) what are the main drivers of sprawl in the Middle East? This paper brings together several evidences from international and the national languages to provide explanation to the above. The findings show that urban and suburban sprawl is an inclusive pattern seen in a wide variety of city sizes, planning concepts, times, etc. Sprawl is not limited to large metropolitan areas; mid-sized and small cities of the region are also sprawling. Furthermore, administrative and planning reasons are the strongest causes of urban sprawl in the region.




More about urban planning in the Middle East:

A REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN POPULATION AND TRANSPORT ENERGY CONSUMPTION

Urban Sprawl Pattern Recognition Using Remote Sensing and GIS – Case Study Shiraz City, Iran

TRADITIONAL SHOPPING: A Syntactic Comparison of Commercial Spaces in Iran and Turkey

URBAN SPRAWL IN MID-SIZED CITIES OF MENA, EVIDENCE FROM YAZD AND KASHAN IN CENTRAL IRAN

A THEORETICAL APPROACH TO CAPABILITIES OF THE TRADITIONAL URBAN FORM IN PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION

Residential Self-Selection and Its Effects on Urban Commute Travels in Iranian Cities Compared to US, UK, and Germany

MODELING THE TRAVEL BEHAVIOR IMPACTS OF MICRO-SCALE LAND USE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS

Friday, June 24, 2016

Bicycling as a Way of Life: A Comparative Case Study of Bicycle Culture in Portland, OR and Amsterdam

By Peter Pelzer,

Over the last decade, bicycling has found itself a place on both the policy and academic agenda. The bike is becoming an important part of urban transportation and life. Most academic research focuses either on determinants of bicycle use or emphasises bicycling as a cultural phenomenon. This paper attempts to bridge these two strands by arguing that ‘bicycle culture’ consists of both a material and a socially constructed dimension. This notion is explored empirically in a comparative case study of Amsterdam and Portland, OR. It concludes with some of the underlying mechanisms in which material and discursive factors interact and states that both policy makers and academics should be sensitive to their respective geohistorical context.


Nederland beweegt
More about bicycle planning:

Walking, Cycling, and Obesity Rates in Europe, North America, and Australia

Bike-sharing arrives in New York City via Citi Bike

TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE URBAN TRANSPORT SYSTEM: PLANNING FOR NON-MOTORIZED VEHICLES IN CITIES

China’s Hangzhou Public Bicycle: Understanding Early Adoption and Behavioral Response to Bikesharing

Chinese bike-sharing dwarfs US and European programs

Tuesday, June 21, 2016

TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE URBAN TRANSPORT SYSTEM: PLANNING FOR NON-MOTORIZED VEHICLES IN CITIES

By Geetam Tiwari

A sustainable transport system must meet the mobility and accessibility needs of people by providing safe and environmentally friendly modes of transportation. This is a complex and difficult task in the mega-cities of developing countries because the needs of people belonging to various income groups are not only different, but also often conflicting in nature. For example, if a large section of the population cannot afford to use motorized transport – private vehicles or public buses – they have to either walk to their place of work or use bicycles. Providing a safe infrastructure for cyclists and pedestrians means either physically segregating road space for cyclists and pedestrians from motorized traffic, or, if that is not possible, reducing the speed of motorized traffic. Both measures imply restricting the mobility of car users to ensure the mobility of bicycle users.
In this paper we show that pedestrians, cyclists and non-motorized rickshaws are the most critical elements in mixed traffic. If infrastructure design does not meet the requirements of these three all modes of transport operate in sub-optimal conditions. It is possible to redesign existing roads to provide a safe and convenient environment for non-motorized modes of transport. This also results in the improved efficiency of public transport vehicles and an enhanced capacity of the transport corridor when measured in number of passengers per hour per lane.


Bikes


more about urban sustainable transportation:

Walking, Cycling, and Obesity Rates in Europe, North America, and Australia

Systematic Review of Active Commuting to School and Children’s Physical Activity and Weight

Active transport to school and the risk of obesity

An Analysis of Car Ownership in Latin American Cities: a Perspective for Future Research

Bike-sharing arrives in New York City via Citi Bike

Challenges of urban transport in developing countries- a summary

Monday, June 13, 2016

Walking, Cycling, and Obesity Rates in Europe, North America, and Australia

By David R. Bassett, Jr., John Pucher, Ralph Buehler, Dixie L. Thompson, and Scott E. Crouter

Purpose: This study was designed to examine the relationship between active transportation (defined as the percentage of trips taken by walking, bicycling, and public transit) and obesity rates (BMI ≥ 30 kg · m−2) in different countries. Methods: National surveys of travel behavior and health indicators in Europe, North America, and Australia were used in this study; the surveys were conducted in 1994 to 2006. In some cases raw data were obtained from national or federal agencies and then analyzed, and in other cases summary data were obtained from published reports. Results: Countries with the highest levels of active transportation generally had the lowest obesity rates. Europeans walked more than United States residents (382 versus 140 km per person per year) and bicycled more (188 versus 40 km per person per year) in 2000. Discussion: Walking and bicycling are far more common in European countries than in the United States, Australia, and Canada. Active transportation is inversely related to obesity in these countries. Although the results do not prove causality, they suggest that active transportation could be one of the factors that explain international differences in obesity rates.
P8220090.sm

more about active transportation:

Active transport to school and the risk of obesity

Systematic Review of Active Commuting to School and Children’s Physical Activity and Weight

Societal trends, mobility behaviour and sustainable transport in Europe and North America

MODELING THE TRAVEL BEHAVIOR IMPACTS OF MICRO-SCALE LAND USE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS

Bike-sharing arrives in New York City via Citi Bike

TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE URBAN TRANSPORT SYSTEM: PLANNING FOR NON-MOTORIZED VEHICLES IN CITIES

Wednesday, April 20, 2016

Urban Sprawl: Lessons from Urban Economics

By JAN K. BRUECKNER,

strong sentiment against the phenomenon known as “urban sprawl” has emerged in the United States over the past few years. Critics of sprawl argue that urban expansion encroaches excessively on agricultural land, leading to a loss of amenity benefits from open space as well as the depletion of scarce farmland resources. The critics also argue that the long commutes generated by urban expansion create excessive traffic congestion and air pollution. In addition, growth at the urban fringe is thought to depress the incentive for redevelopment of land closer to city centers, leading to decay of downtown areas. Finally, some commentators claim that, by spreading people out, lowdensity suburban development reduces social interaction, weakening the bonds that underpin a healthy society.
To make their case, sprawl critics point to a sharp imbalance between urban spatial expansion and underlying population growth in U.S. cities. For example, the critics note that the spatial size of the Chicago metropolitan area grew by 46 percent between 1970 and 1990, while the area’s population grew by only 4 percent. In the Cleveland metropolitan area, spatial growth of 33 percent occurred over this period even though population declined by 8 percent. Similar comparisons are possible for other cities.


more about urban sprawl:

Evaluation of Urban Sprawl Speed and Intensity Based on International Urbanization. Example from a Mexican City

Applying a CA-based model to explore land-use policy scenarios to contain sprawl in Thessaloniki, Greece

Urban Sprawl Pattern Recognition Using Remote Sensing and GIS – Case Study Shiraz City, Iran

URBAN SPRAWL IN MID-SIZED CITIES OF MENA, EVIDENCE FROM YAZD AND KASHAN IN CENTRAL IRAN

A scale-adjusted measure of ‘‘Urban sprawl’’ using nighttime satellite imagery

A new approach to the Iranian urban planning, using neo-traditional development

URBAN SPRAWL IN IRANIAN CITIES AND ITS DIFFERENCES WITH THE WESTERN SPRAWL

Monday, March 7, 2016

Systematic Review of Active Commuting to School and Children’s Physical Activity and Weight

By Murray C. Lee, Marla R. Orenstein, and Maxwell J. Richardson

Background: The recent decline in children’s active commuting (walking or biking) to school has become an important public health issue. Recent programs have promoted the positive effects of active commuting on physical activity (PA) and overweight. However, the evidence supporting such interventions among schoolchildren has not been previously evaluated. Methods: This article presents the results of a systematic review of the association between active commuting to school and outcomes of PA, weight, and obesity in children. Results: We found 32 studies that assessed the association between active commuting to school and PA or weight in children. Most studies assessing PA outcomes found a positive association between active commuting and overall PA levels. However, almost all studies were cross-sectional in design and did not indicate whether active commuting leads to increased PA or whether active children are simply more likely to walk. Only 3 of 18 studies examining weight found consistent results, suggesting that there might be no association between active commuting and reduced weight or body mass index. Conclusion: Although there are consistent findings from cross-sectional studies associating active commuting with increased total PA, interventional studies are needed to help determine causation.


Teen and childhood obesity

More studies on travel behavior:

Active transport to school and the risk of obesity

MODE CHOICE ANALYSIS: THE DATA, THE MODELS AND FUTURE AHEAD

USING STRUCTURAL EQUATIONS MODELLING TO UNRAVEL THE INFLUENCE OF LAND USE PATTERNS ON TRAVEL BEHAVIOR OF URBAN ADULT WORKERS OF PUGET SOUND REGION

Feasibility of Voluntary Reduction of Private Car Use

What if you live in the wrong neighborhood? The impact of residential neighborhood type dissonance on distance traveled

Vehicle Miles Traveled and the Built Environment: Evidence from Vehicle Safety Inspection Data

Residential Self-Selection and Its Effects on Urban Commute Travels in Iranian Cities Compared to US, UK, and Germany

MODELING THE TRAVEL BEHAVIOR IMPACTS OF MICRO-SCALE LAND USE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS

Determinants of Automobile Use: A Comparison of Germany and the U.S.

Friday, February 12, 2016

Active transport to school and the risk of obesity

By Noreen C. McDonald

Childhood obesity has doubled in the last thirty years. At the same time, youth travel patterns have changed greatly. In 1969, 42% of students walked or biked to school; now 13% do. These two trends have caught the attention of policymakers who have identified walking to school as a way to reintroduce physical activity into children’s lives. However, these policies have been made without much knowledge of children’s travel – an area which has been understudied by transportation researchers. This dissertation seeks to fill this knowledge gap and provide information to design better policies by asking three questions: 1) What are the current patterns of children’s travel? 2) What factors have the greatest influence on children’s mode choice for school trips, particularly for walk trips? and 3) How can land use planning affect walking to school?
All analyses identify the spatial distribution of students and schools as the primary reason for the low rates of walking to school. For example, in 1969, 45% of elementary school students lived less than a mile from their school; today fewer than 24% live within this distance. The simple fact is that most children do not live within a walkable distance of their schools. When children do live close to school, substantial numbers walk. However, current policies aimed at increasing walking to school focus on improving trip safety rather than changing distance to school.
To encourage large numbers of children to walk to school, planners will need to coordinate land use and school planning. Including children’s distance from school as a planning criterion could be an effective way to change community design and encourage walking. This coordination is most necessary in moderate and high density areas where neighborhood schools are a possibility. However, even in low-density areas, planners can optimize school and housing placement so that a large portion of students live within a walkable distance of their school.
Childhood Obesity

More about sustainable mobility:

Wednesday, January 20, 2016

An Analysis of Car Ownership in Latin American Cities: a Perspective for Future Research

By Daniela Roque and Houshmand E. Masoumi


Car dependence must be avoided to achieve sustainable transportation; the diversity of studies available give a better perspective of the situation and how to tackle it. The reasons behind the increasing car use are still unknown in some regions such as Latin America. The gaps in the current literature are not just for location; some topics and methods are also unnecessarily predominant in the related studies. This research does a review of current literature for mobility in Latin America region with a special focus on car dependence. The aim is to detect gaps on the knowledge to further give recommendations on what should be studied. The results show the lack of numerical approaches to solidly taken case studies, especially in some countries of the region such as Central America and some of the states of South America. Disaggregate car ownership models are highly necessary for clarification of the region’s behavioral aspects of car ownership such as personal and household preferences and lifestyles. 
Read more
Traffic congestion

More papers about urban transportation planning: