Thursday, July 21, 2016

Introduction to Achieve Sustainable Neighborhoods

By Abolfazl Dehghanmongabadi, Şebnem Önal Hoşkara, and Nina Shirkhanloo

As results of the rapid development of cities and urban settlements during the nineteenth century as well as changes in conditions and aspects that are affective on development of cities in recent years, urban neighborhoods find especial position in the formation of cities. Besides, concept of sustainable development emerged as a major part of literature review in urban design and planning. There are numerous reasons to apply sustainability concept in urban design and planning that generally can be mentioned as preserving of natural systems and resources, economic prosperity and social equitable communities. In this regards, human must manage their own societies and products particularly settlements. Hence, applying aspects of sustainable development within conventional practice of neighborhood planning is a vital approach to achieving sustainable cities throughout the world. Accordingly, the main aim of this study is concentrated to make clear definition of sustainable neighborhood and clarifying the main factors and principles which are affective to achieve a sustainable neighborhood. The methodology of the research is centered on theoretical technique based on previews studies and documents. Consequently, the research would express main characteristics of a sustainable neighborhood and understanding the fundamental factors and approaches to enhance the level of sustainability concept in urban neighborhoods through increasing the quality of life and achieving sustainable development within cities. 


Looking at the City from above (Explore 2014-03-05) Ohne Titel Twilight

Pictures of Västra Hamnen, Malmö, Sweden explained in the article.



More about urban development and sustainable city:

Climate change and urban transportation systems

Evaluating Urban Sustainability Using Land-Use Transport Interaction Models

Assessment of development and regeneration urban projects: cultural and operational implications in metropolization context 

Measuring Socially Sustainable Urban Regeneration in Europe 

Green Alley Programs: Planning for a sustainable urban infrastructure?

Sustainable Urban Development and the Chinese Eco-City: Concepts, Strategies, Policies and Assessments

Friday, July 8, 2016

Toward an understanding of children’s perceptions of their transport geographies: (non)active school travel and visual representations of the built environment

By Caroline Fusco, Fiona Moola, Guy Faulkner, Ron Buliung, Vanessa Richichi

Environmental measures that are designed to facilitate changes in opportunities for active school transport (AST) do not often account for individuals’ interpretations of the built environment (BE) in different urban contexts. The Built Environment and Active School Transport (BEAT) project was undertaken to explore the ways in which the transport-BE interface gives rise to the use of active or non-active travel modes as the primary travel mode for school trips. We wanted to know how children experienced and understood the transport-built environment relationship. We selected four Toronto elementary school sites in areas that differed with respect to socio-economic status and built environment. We conducted photovoice interviews with 41 children, 21 who walked to/from school, and 20 who were driven. Adopting a thematic analytic approach, this paper examines the similarities and differences in the visual narratives of children’s transport geographies and discusses some of the benefits of using photovoice with children in a study of the transport-built environment relationship.

2014 Walk to School Day



more about sustainable urban transportation:

Friday, July 1, 2016

Smart Growth and Transit- Oriented Development at the State Level: Lessons from California, New Jersey, and Western Australia

By John L. Renne

The states of California, New Jersey, and Western Australia encourage smart growth through the employment of transit-oriented development (TOD). This article documents each state’s approach and highlights the importance of interagency cooperation at the state-level and intergovernmental cooperation between state and local governments. This article discusses the importance of state government participation in the planning and creation of policy to facilitate TOD and recommends elements for a model state TOD program.


20140830 04 Fullerton, California

More about Transit-Oriented Development:

Employment decentralization and and Transit-Oriented Development

Seattle's first TOD

A Seattle development that is greener than green

‘Creating nature’ with an urban village in Seattle

Evaluating integration between public transportation and pedestrian-oriented urban spaces in two main metro stations of Tehran

Thursday, June 30, 2016

The Status of Urban and Suburban Sprawl in Egypt and Iran

By Amr Ah. Gouda, Maryamsadat Hosseini, and Houshmand E. Masoumi

The circumstances of urban sprawl in the Middle Eastern cities have been basically examined; now we are aware of the existence of a crawling sprawl in the growth pattern of the region’s cities. Nevertheless, the extent and the causes of this phenomenon have not yet been clearly explained. Thus, two questions are still unanswered: (1) to what extent are the Middle Eastern cities sprawled?, (2) what are the main drivers of sprawl in the Middle East? This paper brings together several evidences from international and the national languages to provide explanation to the above. The findings show that urban and suburban sprawl is an inclusive pattern seen in a wide variety of city sizes, planning concepts, times, etc. Sprawl is not limited to large metropolitan areas; mid-sized and small cities of the region are also sprawling. Furthermore, administrative and planning reasons are the strongest causes of urban sprawl in the region.




More about urban planning in the Middle East:

A REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN POPULATION AND TRANSPORT ENERGY CONSUMPTION

Urban Sprawl Pattern Recognition Using Remote Sensing and GIS – Case Study Shiraz City, Iran

TRADITIONAL SHOPPING: A Syntactic Comparison of Commercial Spaces in Iran and Turkey

URBAN SPRAWL IN MID-SIZED CITIES OF MENA, EVIDENCE FROM YAZD AND KASHAN IN CENTRAL IRAN

A THEORETICAL APPROACH TO CAPABILITIES OF THE TRADITIONAL URBAN FORM IN PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION

Residential Self-Selection and Its Effects on Urban Commute Travels in Iranian Cities Compared to US, UK, and Germany

MODELING THE TRAVEL BEHAVIOR IMPACTS OF MICRO-SCALE LAND USE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS

Friday, June 24, 2016

Bicycling as a Way of Life: A Comparative Case Study of Bicycle Culture in Portland, OR and Amsterdam

By Peter Pelzer,

Over the last decade, bicycling has found itself a place on both the policy and academic agenda. The bike is becoming an important part of urban transportation and life. Most academic research focuses either on determinants of bicycle use or emphasises bicycling as a cultural phenomenon. This paper attempts to bridge these two strands by arguing that ‘bicycle culture’ consists of both a material and a socially constructed dimension. This notion is explored empirically in a comparative case study of Amsterdam and Portland, OR. It concludes with some of the underlying mechanisms in which material and discursive factors interact and states that both policy makers and academics should be sensitive to their respective geohistorical context.


Nederland beweegt
More about bicycle planning:

Walking, Cycling, and Obesity Rates in Europe, North America, and Australia

Bike-sharing arrives in New York City via Citi Bike

TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE URBAN TRANSPORT SYSTEM: PLANNING FOR NON-MOTORIZED VEHICLES IN CITIES

China’s Hangzhou Public Bicycle: Understanding Early Adoption and Behavioral Response to Bikesharing

Chinese bike-sharing dwarfs US and European programs

Tuesday, June 21, 2016

TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE URBAN TRANSPORT SYSTEM: PLANNING FOR NON-MOTORIZED VEHICLES IN CITIES

By Geetam Tiwari

A sustainable transport system must meet the mobility and accessibility needs of people by providing safe and environmentally friendly modes of transportation. This is a complex and difficult task in the mega-cities of developing countries because the needs of people belonging to various income groups are not only different, but also often conflicting in nature. For example, if a large section of the population cannot afford to use motorized transport – private vehicles or public buses – they have to either walk to their place of work or use bicycles. Providing a safe infrastructure for cyclists and pedestrians means either physically segregating road space for cyclists and pedestrians from motorized traffic, or, if that is not possible, reducing the speed of motorized traffic. Both measures imply restricting the mobility of car users to ensure the mobility of bicycle users.
In this paper we show that pedestrians, cyclists and non-motorized rickshaws are the most critical elements in mixed traffic. If infrastructure design does not meet the requirements of these three all modes of transport operate in sub-optimal conditions. It is possible to redesign existing roads to provide a safe and convenient environment for non-motorized modes of transport. This also results in the improved efficiency of public transport vehicles and an enhanced capacity of the transport corridor when measured in number of passengers per hour per lane.


Bikes


more about urban sustainable transportation:

Walking, Cycling, and Obesity Rates in Europe, North America, and Australia

Systematic Review of Active Commuting to School and Children’s Physical Activity and Weight

Active transport to school and the risk of obesity

An Analysis of Car Ownership in Latin American Cities: a Perspective for Future Research

Bike-sharing arrives in New York City via Citi Bike

Challenges of urban transport in developing countries- a summary

Monday, June 13, 2016

Walking, Cycling, and Obesity Rates in Europe, North America, and Australia

By David R. Bassett, Jr., John Pucher, Ralph Buehler, Dixie L. Thompson, and Scott E. Crouter

Purpose: This study was designed to examine the relationship between active transportation (defined as the percentage of trips taken by walking, bicycling, and public transit) and obesity rates (BMI ≥ 30 kg · m−2) in different countries. Methods: National surveys of travel behavior and health indicators in Europe, North America, and Australia were used in this study; the surveys were conducted in 1994 to 2006. In some cases raw data were obtained from national or federal agencies and then analyzed, and in other cases summary data were obtained from published reports. Results: Countries with the highest levels of active transportation generally had the lowest obesity rates. Europeans walked more than United States residents (382 versus 140 km per person per year) and bicycled more (188 versus 40 km per person per year) in 2000. Discussion: Walking and bicycling are far more common in European countries than in the United States, Australia, and Canada. Active transportation is inversely related to obesity in these countries. Although the results do not prove causality, they suggest that active transportation could be one of the factors that explain international differences in obesity rates.
P8220090.sm

more about active transportation:

Active transport to school and the risk of obesity

Systematic Review of Active Commuting to School and Children’s Physical Activity and Weight

Societal trends, mobility behaviour and sustainable transport in Europe and North America

MODELING THE TRAVEL BEHAVIOR IMPACTS OF MICRO-SCALE LAND USE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS

Bike-sharing arrives in New York City via Citi Bike

TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE URBAN TRANSPORT SYSTEM: PLANNING FOR NON-MOTORIZED VEHICLES IN CITIES

Wednesday, April 20, 2016

Urban Sprawl: Lessons from Urban Economics

By JAN K. BRUECKNER,

strong sentiment against the phenomenon known as “urban sprawl” has emerged in the United States over the past few years. Critics of sprawl argue that urban expansion encroaches excessively on agricultural land, leading to a loss of amenity benefits from open space as well as the depletion of scarce farmland resources. The critics also argue that the long commutes generated by urban expansion create excessive traffic congestion and air pollution. In addition, growth at the urban fringe is thought to depress the incentive for redevelopment of land closer to city centers, leading to decay of downtown areas. Finally, some commentators claim that, by spreading people out, lowdensity suburban development reduces social interaction, weakening the bonds that underpin a healthy society.
To make their case, sprawl critics point to a sharp imbalance between urban spatial expansion and underlying population growth in U.S. cities. For example, the critics note that the spatial size of the Chicago metropolitan area grew by 46 percent between 1970 and 1990, while the area’s population grew by only 4 percent. In the Cleveland metropolitan area, spatial growth of 33 percent occurred over this period even though population declined by 8 percent. Similar comparisons are possible for other cities.


more about urban sprawl:

Evaluation of Urban Sprawl Speed and Intensity Based on International Urbanization. Example from a Mexican City

Applying a CA-based model to explore land-use policy scenarios to contain sprawl in Thessaloniki, Greece

Urban Sprawl Pattern Recognition Using Remote Sensing and GIS – Case Study Shiraz City, Iran

URBAN SPRAWL IN MID-SIZED CITIES OF MENA, EVIDENCE FROM YAZD AND KASHAN IN CENTRAL IRAN

A scale-adjusted measure of ‘‘Urban sprawl’’ using nighttime satellite imagery

A new approach to the Iranian urban planning, using neo-traditional development

URBAN SPRAWL IN IRANIAN CITIES AND ITS DIFFERENCES WITH THE WESTERN SPRAWL

Monday, March 7, 2016

Systematic Review of Active Commuting to School and Children’s Physical Activity and Weight

By Murray C. Lee, Marla R. Orenstein, and Maxwell J. Richardson

Background: The recent decline in children’s active commuting (walking or biking) to school has become an important public health issue. Recent programs have promoted the positive effects of active commuting on physical activity (PA) and overweight. However, the evidence supporting such interventions among schoolchildren has not been previously evaluated. Methods: This article presents the results of a systematic review of the association between active commuting to school and outcomes of PA, weight, and obesity in children. Results: We found 32 studies that assessed the association between active commuting to school and PA or weight in children. Most studies assessing PA outcomes found a positive association between active commuting and overall PA levels. However, almost all studies were cross-sectional in design and did not indicate whether active commuting leads to increased PA or whether active children are simply more likely to walk. Only 3 of 18 studies examining weight found consistent results, suggesting that there might be no association between active commuting and reduced weight or body mass index. Conclusion: Although there are consistent findings from cross-sectional studies associating active commuting with increased total PA, interventional studies are needed to help determine causation.


Teen and childhood obesity

More studies on travel behavior:

Active transport to school and the risk of obesity

MODE CHOICE ANALYSIS: THE DATA, THE MODELS AND FUTURE AHEAD

USING STRUCTURAL EQUATIONS MODELLING TO UNRAVEL THE INFLUENCE OF LAND USE PATTERNS ON TRAVEL BEHAVIOR OF URBAN ADULT WORKERS OF PUGET SOUND REGION

Feasibility of Voluntary Reduction of Private Car Use

What if you live in the wrong neighborhood? The impact of residential neighborhood type dissonance on distance traveled

Vehicle Miles Traveled and the Built Environment: Evidence from Vehicle Safety Inspection Data

Residential Self-Selection and Its Effects on Urban Commute Travels in Iranian Cities Compared to US, UK, and Germany

MODELING THE TRAVEL BEHAVIOR IMPACTS OF MICRO-SCALE LAND USE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS

Determinants of Automobile Use: A Comparison of Germany and the U.S.

Friday, February 12, 2016

Active transport to school and the risk of obesity

By Noreen C. McDonald

Childhood obesity has doubled in the last thirty years. At the same time, youth travel patterns have changed greatly. In 1969, 42% of students walked or biked to school; now 13% do. These two trends have caught the attention of policymakers who have identified walking to school as a way to reintroduce physical activity into children’s lives. However, these policies have been made without much knowledge of children’s travel – an area which has been understudied by transportation researchers. This dissertation seeks to fill this knowledge gap and provide information to design better policies by asking three questions: 1) What are the current patterns of children’s travel? 2) What factors have the greatest influence on children’s mode choice for school trips, particularly for walk trips? and 3) How can land use planning affect walking to school?
All analyses identify the spatial distribution of students and schools as the primary reason for the low rates of walking to school. For example, in 1969, 45% of elementary school students lived less than a mile from their school; today fewer than 24% live within this distance. The simple fact is that most children do not live within a walkable distance of their schools. When children do live close to school, substantial numbers walk. However, current policies aimed at increasing walking to school focus on improving trip safety rather than changing distance to school.
To encourage large numbers of children to walk to school, planners will need to coordinate land use and school planning. Including children’s distance from school as a planning criterion could be an effective way to change community design and encourage walking. This coordination is most necessary in moderate and high density areas where neighborhood schools are a possibility. However, even in low-density areas, planners can optimize school and housing placement so that a large portion of students live within a walkable distance of their school.
Childhood Obesity

More about sustainable mobility:

Wednesday, January 20, 2016

An Analysis of Car Ownership in Latin American Cities: a Perspective for Future Research

By Daniela Roque and Houshmand E. Masoumi


Car dependence must be avoided to achieve sustainable transportation; the diversity of studies available give a better perspective of the situation and how to tackle it. The reasons behind the increasing car use are still unknown in some regions such as Latin America. The gaps in the current literature are not just for location; some topics and methods are also unnecessarily predominant in the related studies. This research does a review of current literature for mobility in Latin America region with a special focus on car dependence. The aim is to detect gaps on the knowledge to further give recommendations on what should be studied. The results show the lack of numerical approaches to solidly taken case studies, especially in some countries of the region such as Central America and some of the states of South America. Disaggregate car ownership models are highly necessary for clarification of the region’s behavioral aspects of car ownership such as personal and household preferences and lifestyles. 
Read more
Traffic congestion

More papers about urban transportation planning:

Thursday, December 17, 2015

MODE CHOICE ANALYSIS: THE DATA, THE MODELS AND FUTURE AHEAD

By Minal, Ch. and Ravi Sekhar

Mode choice is one of the most vital stages in transportation planning process and it has direct impact on the policy making decisions. Mode choice models deals very closely with the human choice making behaviour and thus continues to attract researchers for further exploration of commuter’s choice making process. The objective of this study is to carryout detailed review on various modeling methods of mode choice analysis and bottlenecks associated with the same. The factors that affect the psyche of the travelers have been discussed; further various types of data required and their method of collection has been briefed up. This paper particularly emphasizes on statistical mode choice models such as multinomial logit and probit models as well as recent advanced soft computing techniques such as Artificial Neural Network models (ANN) and Fuzzy approach model that are employed for modal split analysis. Comparative analysis were made among various modeling techniques for modeling the complex mode choice of behaviour of models carried out by various researchers in the literature and a discussion on the need of future hybrid soft computing models has been attempted.


more about urban travel behavior:

USING STRUCTURAL EQUATIONS MODELLING TO UNRAVEL THE INFLUENCE OF LAND USE PATTERNS ON TRAVEL BEHAVIOR OF URBAN ADULT WORKERS OF PUGET SOUND REGION

Feasibility of Voluntary Reduction of Private Car Use

What if you live in the wrong neighborhood? The impact of residential neighborhood type dissonance on distance traveled

Vehicle Miles Traveled and the Built Environment: Evidence from Vehicle Safety Inspection Data

Residential Self-Selection and Its Effects on Urban Commute Travels in Iranian Cities Compared to US, UK, and Germany

MODELING THE TRAVEL BEHAVIOR IMPACTS OF MICRO-SCALE LAND USE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS

Determinants of Automobile Use: A Comparison of Germany and the U.S

Friday, December 11, 2015

GIS MODELLING IN THEMATIC MAPPING OF LAND COVER CHANGES IN THE FOREST-STEPPE REGION OF RUSSIA

By ELIZAVETA KHAZIEVA

Nowadays there are many remote sensing methods and tools, which help to deeply understand the land cover processes on the large area without field researches. The cartographic modeling is one feasible way to analyze and deeply understand the data and processes which take place in the region. A combination of different data (such as remote sensing data, statistical information, historical maps and others), a knowledge of the territory ensures integral investigation, and a better demonstration of the result. There are many different approaches and models, one of them being thematic cartography. This is part of cartography focusing on natural phenomena, social, political and economic issues, combining visualization and exploration methods, and targeting and supporting different groups of users (Tikunov, 1997). Models are useful and used in a vastarray of GIS applications, from simple evaluation to the prediction of future landscapes. Cartographic modelling is a general methodology for the analysis and synthesis of geographical data. It employs what amount to an algebra in which single-factor maps are treated as variables that can be flexibly manipulated using an integrated set of functions (Paul et. al., 1991). The main trends of landscape changes is croplands decreasing especially in the 1990s, the situation beginning to improve by 2000 – 2006s. It probably has to do with the reforming procedure which had been started since the 1900s. Around 2000, the economic situation in Russia had stabilized again (Ioffe et al., 2008). For a better understanding of the impacts caused by political and economic developments on land use, further studies are necessary. The developed model has to be amended by adding some socio-economic data. It would help to better understand the process in a particular area and would allow to emphasize the drivers of changes more precisely.

 

Thursday, December 10, 2015

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGES IN CAR OWNERSHIP PATTERNS

By Anna Matas and Josep-LLuís Raymond

The contributions of this paper are twofold: On the one hand, the paper analyses the factors determining the growth in car ownership in Spain over the last two decades, and, on the other, the paper provides empirical evidence for a controversial methodological issue. From a methodological point of view, the paper compares the two alternative decision mechanisms used for modelling car ownership: ordered-response versus unordered-response mechanisms. A discrete choice model is estimated at three points in time: 1980, 1990 and 2000. The study concludes that on the basis of forecasting performance, the multinomial logit model and the ordered probit model are almost undistinguishable. As for the empirical results, it can be emphasised that income elasticity is not constant and declines as car ownership increases. Besides, households living in rural areas are less sensitive than those living in urban areas. Car ownership is also sensitive to the quality of public transport for those living in the largest cities. The results also confirmed the existence of a generation effect, which will vanish around the year 2020, a weak life-cycle effect, and a positive effect of employment on the number of cars per household. Finally, the change in the estimated coefficients over time reflects an increase in mobility needs and, consequently, an increase in car ownership.

Traffic ?

More about urban transportation planning:

Potential Impacts of Climate Change on U.S. Transportation

UNDERSTANDING PERCEPTIONS OF ACCESSIBILITY AND MOBILITY THROUGH STRUCTURATION THEORY

How the Built Environment Influences Non-Work Travel: Theoretical and Empirical Essays 

Determinants of Automobile Use: A Comparison of Germany and the U.S.

Challenges of urban transport in developing countries- a summary

A dynamic formulation for car ownership modeling

By Cinzia Cirillo y, Renting Xu , and Fabian Bastinyz

Discrete choice models are commonly used in transportation planning and modeling, but their theoretical basis and applications have been mainly developed in a static context. In this paper, we propose an estimation technique for analyzing the impact of technological changes on the dynamic of consumer demand. The proposed research presents a dynamic formulation that explicitly models market evolution and accounts for consumers' expectations of future product characteristics. The timing of consumers' decisions is formulated as a regenerative optimal stopping problem where the agent must decide on the optimal time of purchase. This model frame will be further improved by modeling the choice from a set of di erentiated products whose characteristics randomly change over time. The framework proposed is developed and applied in the context of car ownership.


mroe about urban transportation planning:

USING STRUCTURAL EQUATIONS MODELLING TO UNRAVEL THE INFLUENCE OF LAND USE PATTERNS ON TRAVEL BEHAVIOR OF URBAN ADULT WORKERS OF PUGET SOUND REGION

MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF TRANSPORTATION AND NETWORKS

Addressing Urban Transportation Equity in the United States

Transportation Policy for Poverty Reduction and Social Equity

A REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN POPULATION AND TRANSPORT ENERGY CONSUMPTION

Climate change and urban transportation systems

Vehicle Miles Traveled and the Built Environment: Evidence from Vehicle Safety Inspection Data

A THEORETICAL APPROACH TO CAPABILITIES OF THE TRADITIONAL URBAN FORM IN PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION

Monday, November 23, 2015

Potential Impacts of Climate Change on U.S. Transportation

By Committee on Climate Change and U.S. Transportation
Transportation Research Board
Division on Earth and Life Studies

The world’s leading climate scientists have reached consensus that human activity in the form of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is warming the planet in ways that will have profound and unsettling impacts on natural resources, energy use, ecosystems, economic activity, and potentially quality of life. The earth’s climate is always in a state of flux, but what is of concern today is the rapid rate of change and the unabated contribution of human activity to its occurrence. Many studies have already examined the potential impacts of climate change on broad sectors of the economy, such as agriculture and forestry, but few have studied the impacts on transportation.
The primary focus of this report is on the consequences of climate change1 for the infrastructure and operations of U.S. transportation.2 The report provides transportation professionals with an overview of the scientific consensus on those current and future climate changes of particular relevance to U.S. transportation, including the limitations of present scientific understanding as to their precise timing, magnitude, and geographic location; identifies potential impacts on U.S. transportation and adaptation options; and offers recommendations for both research and actions that can be taken to prepare for climate change. The report also summarizes previous work on strategies for reducing transportation-related emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2)—the primary GHG—that contribute to climate change, a relatively wellresearched area (see Appendix B).
Climate change will have significant impacts on transportation, affecting the way U.S. transportation professionals plan, design, construct, operate, and maintain infrastructure. Decisions taken today, particularly those related to the redesign and retrofitting of existing or the location and design of new transportation infrastructure, will affect how well the system adapts to climate change far into the future. Focusing on the problem now should help avoid costly future investments and disruptions to operations. The primary objective of this report is to provide guidance for transportation decision makers on how best to proceed.


Similar papers:

The impact of climate change and weather on transport: An overview of empirical findings

MITIGATING URBAN HEAT ISLAND EFFECT BY URBAN DESIGN: FORMS AND MATERIALS


Daytime urban heat island effect in high-rise and high-density residential developments in Hong Kong



Asian cities at highest risk to climate change, study says



Sustainable Transport and Climate Change: Environmentally Experiences and lessons from community initiatives

Tuesday, November 10, 2015

The impact of climate change and weather on transport: An overview of empirical findings

By Mark J. Koetse and Piet Rietveld

This paper presents a survey of the empirical literature on the effects of climate change and weather conditions on the transport sector. Despite mixed evidence on many issues, several patterns can be observed. On a global scale especially shifts in tourism and agricultural production due to increased temperatures may lead to shifts in passenger and freight transport. The predicted rise in sea levels and the associated increase in frequency and intensity of storm surges and flooding incidences may furthermore be some of the most worrying consequences of climate change, especially for coastal areas. Climate change related shifts in weather patterns might also cause infrastructure disruptions. Clear patterns are that precipitation affects road safety by increasing accident frequency but decreasing severity. Precipitation also increases congestion, especially during peak hours. Furthermore, an increased frequency of low water levels may considerably increase costs of inland waterway transport. Despite these insights, the net impact of climate change on generalised costs of the various transport modes are uncertain and ambiguous, with a possible exception for inland waterway transport.


More on climate change:

Becoming Greenest: Recommendations for a More Sustainable Washington, D.C.

Climate change and urban transportation systems

MITIGATING URBAN HEAT ISLAND EFFECT BY URBAN DESIGN: FORMS AND MATERIALS

Daytime urban heat island effect in high-rise and high-density residential developments in Hong Kong

Asian cities at highest risk to climate change, study says

Sustainable Transport and Climate Change: Environmentally Experiences and lessons from community initiatives

 

Wednesday, August 19, 2015

Evaluation of Urban Sprawl Speed and Intensity Based on International Urbanization. Example from a Mexican City

By Houshmand E. MASOUMI and Daniela ROQUE

Urban sprawl characteristics and forms have been investigated thoroughly, but studies are often at a country or a region level. The related observations fail to compare sprawl in cities from different continents or cultures. This paper tries to do this by quantifying sprawl in a mid-sized city in north-western Mexico (Ensenada) between 1980 and 2014 by means of Shannon Entropy and comparing it with 12 different cities from India, Iran, Portugal, Nepal, China, and Canada. The comparisons are conducted separately targeting sprawl intensity and speed. Shannon Entropy means are compared to represent differences in sprawl intensity, while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) is applied to model and compare regression coefficients that represent sprawl speed. Homogeneity of regression slopes indicates differences in sprawl speed of Ensenada with the compared cities. The results reveal that Ensenada is more sprawled than 7 out of 12 of the observed cities, but continues to spread outward with the same speed as most of the compared cities. Such international comparisons on sprawl can on the one hand give an overview of the differences in sprawl characteristics in cities around the world. On the other hand, such investigations can provide local governments, such as Ensenada, insights to shortcomings and weak points of their land use policy. Concerning the latter case, the case-study city of this research, which represents about 20 mid-sized cities of Northern Mexico, has to take urban and suburban sprawl containment policies.

Ensenada and its buffer zones between 1980
and 2014. Source: based of the data originated from IMIP

More about urban sprawl:

Applying a CA-based model to explore land-use policy scenarios to contain sprawl in Thessaloniki, Greece

Urban Sprawl Pattern Recognition Using Remote Sensing and GIS – Case Study Shiraz City, Iran

URBAN SPRAWL IN MID-SIZED CITIES OF MENA, EVIDENCE FROM YAZD AND KASHAN IN CENTRAL IRAN

A scale-adjusted measure of ‘‘Urban sprawl’’ using nighttime satellite imagery

Measurement and Monitoring of Urban Sprawl in a Rapidly Growing Region Using Entropy

The characteristics, causes and costs of urban sprawl: a lecture by Reid Ewing

A new approach to the Iranian urban planning, using neo-traditional development

URBAN SPRAWL IN IRANIAN CITIES AND ITS DIFFERENCES WITH THE WESTERN SPRAWL

Monday, June 1, 2015

USING STRUCTURAL EQUATIONS MODELLING TO UNRAVEL THE INFLUENCE OF LAND USE PATTERNS ON TRAVEL BEHAVIOR OF URBAN ADULT WORKERS OF PUGET SOUND REGION

By João de Abreu e Silva and Konstadinos G. Goulias

This paper addresses the relationship between travel behavior and land use patterns using a Structural Equations Modeling framework.
The proposed model structure in this paper is by design heavily influenced by a model developed for Lisbon (1) to allow comparisons. In that paper the existence of significant effects of land use patterns in travel behavior was found. The travel behavior variables included in the model are multidimensional and comprehend both short term, number of trips by mode and trip scheduling, and long term, home location, car and pass ownership, mobility decisions. The modeled land use variables measure the levels of urban intensity and density, diversity, both in terms of types of uses and the mix between jobs and inhabitants and the public transport supply levels,. The land use patterns are described both at the residence and employment zones.. 
In order to explicitly account for self selection bias the land use variables are explicitly modeled as functions of socioeconomic attributes of individuals and their households.
The Seattle findings are presented and then compared them to the Lisbon findings. Many commonalities between the two environments were found but also many important differences.


More about transportation modeling:

MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF TRANSPORTATION AND NETWORKS

MODELING THE TRAVEL BEHAVIOR IMPACTS OF MICRO-SCALE LAND USE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS

Mobility biographies. A new perspective for understanding travel behaviour

What if you live in the wrong neighborhood? The impact of residential neighborhood type dissonance on distance traveled

Vehicle Miles Traveled and the Built Environment: Evidence from Vehicle Safety Inspection Data

Determinants of Automobile Use: A Comparison of Germany and the U.S.

The influence of neighbourhood design on travel behaviour: Empirical evidence from North East England

Monday, March 9, 2015

MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF TRANSPORTATION AND NETWORKS

By Anna Nagurney

In this chapter, we provide the foundations of the rigorous formulation, analysis, and solution of transportation network problems. We discuss user-optimization, which corresponds to decentralized decision-making, and system-optimization, which corresponds to centralized decision-making where the central controller can route the traffic in an optimal manner. We describe a spectrum of increasingly sophisticated models and also relate transportation networks to other network application domains in which flows (and associated decision-making) are essential, such as the Internet, supply chains, electric power distribution and generation networks, as well as financial networks. Finally, we demonstrate how the importance of transportation network components, that is, nodes and links can be identified (and ranked) through a recently proposed transportation network efficiency measure and accompanying component importance definition. Examples are included throughout the chapter for illustrative purposes.


more about urban transportation:

Transportation Policy for Poverty Reduction and Social Equity

Addressing Urban Transportation Equity in the United States

A REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN POPULATION AND TRANSPORT ENERGY CONSUMPTION

Societal trends, mobility behaviour and sustainable transport in Europe and North America

Vehicle Miles Traveled and the Built Environment: Evidence from Vehicle Safety Inspection Data

Residential Self-Selection and Its Effects on Urban Commute Travels in Iranian Cities Compared to US, UK, and Germany

MODELING THE TRAVEL BEHAVIOR IMPACTS OF MICRO-SCALE LAND USE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS