In recent years, with the rapid economic growth and concentration of the population into urban areas, some unregulated developments have been conducted in urban areas in Southeast Asian countries, so that their governments are under the pressure of necessity to develop an adequate operation of urban planning systems. Not all of the Southeast Asian countries, however, always have appropriate technologies for the urban planning project. Therefore, in this context, Japan, with practical experience in urban planning, is expected to transfer its technology and know-how to such a planning. This paper analyzed the backgrounds and urban planning/urban transportation issues in the Southeast Asian countries and proposed a technical cooperation model in response to requests arising from those countries.
1. BACKGROUNDS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
In Southeast Asian countries, urban areas have been developed unsystematically in recent years with their rapid economic growth and expansion of urban population, creating seriously aggravated living environments. Figure.1 shows a trend of urbanization process of industrialized countries and that of Southeast Asian countries. A negative impact of motorization, industrialization and economic growth in Southeast Asian countries accelerate urban service deterioration and accordingly generate serious urban issues, such as traffic congestion, Photo 1. Bangkok, the capital city of Thailand traffic accident, air/water pollution, and sprawl phenomenon in the central district of the city. These countries lack a well-established urban planning system and necessary technology and proper experience. To alleviate those of severe condition and improve their environment, Japan has dispatched technical experts (hereinafter referred to as “JICA experts”) to developing countries from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), of which sole Japanese governmental agency in charge of bilateral technical cooperation and grant aid projects, in the view of a part of international cooperation, widely known as definition of Official Development Assistance (ODA).
JICA conducts an extensive technical cooperation program covering such subjects as the institution of various legal systems, establishment of technical standards, human resources development through technology transfer, and planning of individual projects.
|Thailand, image by Gary Wong Photography|
|Jakarta, image by Aktiv Phil|
|Manila, image by Andy*Enero|
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