Research into the effects of spatial configuration on the use of transport modes has to date dominantly been based on analyses of actual travel behaviour or prediction of future transport mode choices. However, in this research it is not made clear what choice opportunities were available for travel behaviour of the various population categories, given their desired activities and time-space opportunities. The authors describe a time-space theoretical and methodological framework based on the concept of action spaces, within which the choice opportunities of different types of house- holds of various areas can be analysed. On the basis of a pilot study among the residents of a suburban neighbourhood in a Netherlands new town, the time space opportunities they have to use alternative transport modes other than the car are brought into the frame. It is shown that residents have more time-space opportunities to make use of existing environmentally friendly, transport modes than had been expected. The possibilities differ between types of action spaces and types of households. Some implications for policymaking are discussed. The authors state that policymakers should be more sensitive to interpersonal differences in accessibility.