Monday, March 19, 2012


by P.C. Manins, M.E. Cope, P.J. Hurley, P.W. Newton, N.C. Smith and L.O. Marquez

Melbourne has been used as a case study to investigate the effects of six alternative urban forms on air quality. The forms are Dispersed City, Compact City, Corridor City, Multi-Nodal City, Fringe-Development City and 'Business-As-Usual' City. We took 1991 as the base year, using emissions, population and transport data supplied by EPA Victoria. We specified changes in activities for each alternative development to the year 2011. We used an integrated landuse-transport optimisation model (Topaz 2000) to predict the changed emissions for each scenario. A coupled 3-D meteorological model (LADM) and photochemical airshed model (extended CIT model) were used to predict the hour by hour air quality conditions on an adverse winter day and an adverse summer day. For the modelled cases we found: Photochemical Smog. The exposure levels show a 55% improvement from base year for the Corridor City, compared with a 71% worsening for Business as Usual. Particulate Pollution. With particulate build up, there would be an improvement of 14% for the Corridor City and a worsening by 61% for Business as Usual compared to the base case. Exposure in the Compact City is, for the given emission load, substantially worse than in any other.

Archetypal Urban Systems. Taken from the above paper: Manins PC, Cope ME, Hurley PJ, Newton PW, Smith NC, Marquez LO. 1998. The impact of urban development on air quality and energy use. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Clean Air and Environment Conference, Melbourne. Mitcham, VIC. Clean Air Society of Australia and New Zealand. Pp. 331-336.

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