Monday, January 9, 2012

Interaction of Architecture and Society: City Individuality under changeable informal Effect Conditions


On the threshold of the 21st century (in the 1990s), public organizations of European and other countries focused their attention on the problems, the solution of which could help improve standards of living in the cities and towns. Theoretical propositions about the citizens’ right to protection from aggression, environmental pollution and aggressive urban environment as well as the rights to shelter, health care, cultural life, mobility, democratic control of authorities and participation in the development of democratic principles have been analyzed in the great number of documents from various perspectives.
The influence of West European countries on developing urban architecture on democratic principles, implying the involvement of society in this process, as well as the transforming social, political and economic conditions in Lithuania led to great changes in economic, legal and social approaches to urban development under market conditions in this country. Local authorities, not properly ensuring the implementation of self-government principles influenced by various factors, including the activity of informal groups and individuals, does not always take the initiative as a planner and developer. In this case, a private subject – society becomes a participant and initiator of developing a concept of urban architecture. A concept of society participation in developing urban architecture embraces not only legal activities, but also includes some informal actions, not provided by law. The problem of involving communities in sustainable development of urban architecture has been much discussed both on national and international scale. A resolution adopted by the Lithuanian Government ‘On approving a list of fields of architecture to be developed in Lithuania’ emphasizes the significant role of architecture as a unique art in the country, implying that every citizen should actively participate in architectural development. According to Bristol Accord (Office…), the agreement adopted on the 6th -7th of December, 2005 at the informal meeting of foreign affairs ministers from 12 EU countries, the key indicators of sustainable community were defined with the emphasis placed on the involvement of society in urban development of the border regions. Many articles and monographs published by world researchers and various specialists on this problem and plans and surveys also confirm the importance of the discussed problem. The problem of informal participation of society in developing urban architecture in Lithuania was sporadically studied by various scientists. Considering the works of the famous world’s urbanists stating the importance of this phenomena in the context of IfE, the following should be mentioned:
· Provisions of the “Central locations” theory of German urban specialist V.Christaler  first half of 20th century, which declared the necessity to regulate informal interaction of urban centres in each other’s respect;
· English thinker E.Howard’s garden city ideas analysing informal interaction of cities and suburbs and possibilities to solve social-employment and rest problems, to coordinate village and city advantages. The Garden Cities and Town Planning Federation founded in 1913 – NGO is still functioning;
· Urbanist L.Mumford’s activities in establishing UK Town and Country Planning Association in the context of the article – the NGO, activities of which were crowned by the adoption of the New Towns Act;
· USA scientist K.Lynch (1918-1989) in his statements highlighted the social- informal effect aspect of the collective opinion of residents about their city, which allows origin of informal planning, to ascertain visual and emotional contents of city form, enables residents of the city to understand the importance of involvement in planning processes. Thus, individual opinions of a number of individuals may create also collective peculiar city image versions;

more about planning theory:

Healthy Urban Planning The Concept, Tools, and Application


Moses v. Jacobs: Who Lived the Abogo Lifestyle?

Howard Park and Howard Garden, Letchworth Garden City, Herts: Archaeological Desk Based Assessment

Anglo-American town planning theory since 1945: three significant developments but no paradigm shifts

No comments:

Post a Comment